e Battle of Culloden in 1746 was the last fullscale land battle to be fought on British soil. While almost every other European country has become a battleground since then, for the last 250 years Britaln has been spared the horrors of invasion and occupation. Yet all over England and Scotland there are traces of our brutal past. There are tangible signs like monuments to the dead or the bullet holes in the door of Alton church. Local place names like Bloody Meadow keep alive the memory of the hideous slaughter that followed the defeat of several medieval armies. In 1995 English Heritage published a register of battlefields, focusing attention on 44 sites. Intended to provide guidance for those Involved in conservation, the register identifies the geographical location and highlights key features which deserve special care because of their historic significance.British Battles includes all of these historically important engagements and, employing the same criteria, covers the ten greatest battles In Scotland from Stirling Bridge and the war against Edward I to Culloden and the defeat of the Jacobite cause. British Battles is unlike all previous accounts of the battles that shaped our history. By combining eyewitness descriptions with the researches of modern re-enactors, British Battles reveals what it was like for the ordinary soldiers. Over the course of seven centuries of warfare, weapons and tactics changed considerably. But for the men in the frontline, and the women and children often accompanying an army into battle, the experience was disagreeably similar: long marches over dirt I roads, bad weather, illness and disease; th terror of close quarter battle and the agonising medical treatment that was the only hope of surv~val 1 for the wounded.
Freelance film-makers and photo-journalists Ken and Denise Guest have specialised in reporting from remote and inhospitable locations blighted by war. They have travelled with many different armies in the course of their work; sharing the lives and hardships of the local people. Sometimes the 'soldiers' with whom they travelled were irregular guerrilla forces sustained only by national pride or religious faith. In this context, regular forays into Afghanistan and Cambodia have been a feature of their careers. O n other occasions they have found themselves with 'the big battalions'; at the cutting edge of the high-tech, multi-national peacekeeping operations of the United Nations. Since 1980 frontline reports filmed by Ken have aired on television networks around the world. He reported the Iran-Iraq war from both sides and covered the conflict in the Lebanon from the 1982 Israeli invasion onwards. He was also one of the few journalists to cover the decade-long war in Afghanistan from beginning to end, making over thirty trips with the mujadhideen. His photojournalistic work has been exhibited in New York and Singapore. Denise, a freelance producer, teamed up with Ken in 1986 to form Contact Productions: a company specialising in news and documentary work. Assignments for clients such as the BBC have involved them working together on the front line of wars from the mountains of Khurdistan to the shattered cities of Bosnia. They married In 1990 between coverage of the civil war in Liberia and the Gulf War.
Printed in Great Britain HarperCollinsPublishers
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T H E F R O N T LINES OF H I S T O R Y I N COLOUR PHOTOGRAPHS KEN A N D
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to express their gratitude to Dell Computers for the loan of computer equipment (not least the 'quantam fireball']; Val Horsler of English Heritage Publications for supporting this project from its inception; David Smurthwaite and colleagues at the National Army Museum whose diligent research for the English Heritage Battlefield Register was an enormous aid to our own efforts; Sarah Dupuy, Barbara Hamilton, Anita King, Liz Munro, Gail Pilkington, and Nicola Scully of Swanage Library who put in much hard work behind the scenes tracking down obscure tomes in an impossibly short timescale; Howard Giles of the English Heritage Special Events Unit for organising access to various re-enactment events; Paul Williams Photographic for help with the processing; Paul Meelzins, Richard Brown and Victor Sutcliffe for providing endless lists of essential boolzs; the Society of Authors and the Authors' Foundation for their generous support, Araminta Whitley, our agent, for her sound guidance; Ian Drury, our long suffering editor, for his endless patience and good humour; and Jan and Peter Guest for their essential rearguard action on the home front. Thanks are also due to Ian Allen, Chris Baker, Ian & Trudy Barret, Phil Berthon, David Blaclzmoor, George & Betty Blake, Dan Bolaney, Nick Blloe, Andrew Brown, Bob Carruthers, David Cree, Dave Chambers, Brendan Cronin, Chris Broome-Smith,John Cole, David Cubbage, Melanie Davis, Rachel Dreher, John &
Tessa Drury, Richard Dunk, Adrian Elliston, Ken Evans, Phil Fenwick, Martin Philips, Mark Griffin, Barry Hanson, David Hardwick, Sue Hewitt, Ann Hemus, Rosemary Hills, Paul Hitchin, Alex Hook, Karin Kelly, Derelz Watlzins, Alan Teffrey, Alan Larsen, Colin Levick, Michael Loades, David Logan, Paul Lydiate, Ian & Mary MacDonald Watson, Jane May, Dougie McCall, Dave McGrath, Bruce MacLellan, Mark Meltonville, Keith Piggot, Jonathan Prickett, Stewart Pryde, Chris Pullen, Heath Pye, Pete Ross, Chris Scott, Alex Summers, Julian Tillbury, Jonathan Taylor, Chris Thomas, Stuart Reid, Liz Roberts, Dave Ross, Dave Ryan, Judy Smith, Kim Siddorn, Les & Amanda Thomas, Paul Thompson, Philip Vaughan, William Walze, Veronica Wallace, John Washbourne, James Wilson, David Wilson, Mike and Lynda Woodhouse. Last, but not least, we would lilze to place on record our indebtedness to all of those anonymous pilzemen who demonstrated their drills; the Highlanders who performed endless charges for us to photograph; the knights who answered obscure questions about armour; the archers who drew their bows time and again; the musketeers who fired volleys; the smokebegrimed gunners who revealed the mysteries of their devilish art; and all of the many other re-enactors without whom this book would not have been possible. To each and every one we unreservedly express our thanks.
This edition especially produced for DMG Ltd in 2002 HarperCollinsPublishers 77-85 Fnlham Palace Road Hammersmith London W6 8JB First published in Great Britain by HarperCollinsPublishers 1996 Text and photos O Ken and Denise Guest 1996 The authors assert the moral right to be identified as the authors of this work ISBN 0 00 765263 1 Maps: Peter Harper Editor: Ian Drury Design: Rachel Smyth Production Manager: Bridget Scanlon Colour reproduction by Saxon Photo Litho, Norwich, England Printed and bound in Spain by Graficas Estella All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission of the publishers and copyright holders.
CONTENTS Foreword 6 Introduction 7
ANGLO-SAXON WARS CIVIL WAR 8 Newburn Ford 12 Powick Bridge 16 Edgehill Braddock Down Hopton Heath MEDIEVAL WARS Northallerton 22 Stratton Lewes 24 Chalgrove Field Evesham 26 Adwalton Moor Stirling Bridge 28 Lansdown Hill Fallzirk 1 30 Roundway Down Bannockburn 32 Newbury Myton 34 Winceby Boroughbridge 36 Nantwich Halidon Hill 38 Cheriton Neville's Cross 40 Cropredy Bridge Otterburn 42 Marston Moor Homildon Hill 44 Naseby Shrewsbury 46 Langport Auldearn Alford 156 WARS OF THE ROSES Kilsyth 159 50 Rowton Heath Blore Heath 162 54 Stow-on-the-Wold 164 Northampton 58 Dunbar Towton 166 64 ~ o r c e s t e r Barnet 170 Tewkesbury 68 Bosworth STUART UPRISINGS Stoke Field Sedgemoor 173 Killiekrankie 177 Sheriffmuir 180 SCOTTISH WARS Prestonpans 187 Flodden 192 Falkirlz I1 Solway Moss Culloden 196 Pinkie Maldon Stamford Bridge Hastings